Unit 8 | Grammar | B2
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Unit 8 | Grammar | B2

Phrasal verbs

break down (of a machine, engine, etc.) stop working
collapse emotionally or physically
break in(to) enter a building illegally or by force
break...off (of talks, agreements, etc.) end; terminate
break out (of war, disease, etc.) begin suddenly
escape from prison
break up end a relationship

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate phrasal verb in the correct tense.

  1. They’ve ______________ peace talks between the two warring countries.
  2. She ______________ and cried when she heard the bad news.
  3. When we returned, we found that our house had been _______________.
  4. A group of political prisoners _________________ late last night.
  5. Their marriage seems to be __________________.
  6. The epidemic that __________________ recently has claimed hundreds of lives.
  7. We’ll have to use the stairs as the lift has _________________.

Prepositions of place: at, in, on


to talk about a specific point in space where sth is found ■ at the door
to talk about public places or institutions      ■ at the gallery
to say that sb is at an event  ■ at the party/football match
in the expressions: at home, at work, at the end, at the front, at the top, at the back, and also: at war, at rest


to talk about a place as an area ■ in a country/town/village
to talk about sth or sb that is within clearly defined limits ■ in a building/box


at the cinema

He’s at the cinema. (=He’s watching the film.)

in the cinema

He’s in the cinema. (=He’s in the building but not necessarily watching the film.)

at 15 Daisy Ave        (when the house number is given)
in/on Daisy Ave           (when only the name of the street is given)
at /on the comer of a street
in the comer of a room


to talk about sb or sth touching or covering the surface of an object ■ on the table
to talk about an area of land (not the precise position) where sth is or happens ■ She works on a farm/on a building site.
to say that sth or sb is in a public vehicle ■ on the bus, on the train
and in the expressions: ■ on the river, on the road, on the coast

Use at, in, on to fill the gaps.

  1. He was relaxing ____________ the sofa in front of the fire.
  2. The sweet shop ________ the corner of West Street and Bank Avenue sells Swiss chocolate.
  3. They were drinking coffee ________ a little café________ Brady Street.
  4. She has bought a beautiful little cottage ________ the river.
  5. Fred was ________ the bus when the accident happened.
  6. I didn’t manage to see the Manager because he was ______ a conference.
  7. I’ve left my keys ____ home _____ the kitchen.
  8. I’ll meet you back __________ the hotel.
  9. Would you mind putting these things away _________ the drawer for me?
  10. Ms Hanson is waiting for you _______ your office, sir.
  11. If you keep on talking, I’ll have to make you sit _______ the front of the class.
  12. I remember doing that when I was ______ school.

Adverbs of manner

Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding -ly to the corresponding adjective. But adjectives ending in:

-y change -y to -i before taking -ly,

■ pretty - prettily

-able or -ible change to -ably or -ibly to form adverbs,

■ probable - probably, terrible - terribly

-ly have no corresponding adverb forms (with the exception of early and kindly which are the same in both forms). Some of these adjectives are lovely, brotherly, fatherly, friendly.

To express manner with these adjectives, use adverb phrases with way or manner.

in a lovely way, in a friendly manner

Remember the exceptions: good - well, hard - hard, fast - fast.

Complete the sentences with the adverb of the word in capitals.

  1. You should try to behave__________________. (RESPONSIBLE)
  2. Peter is studying______________ for his exam. (HARD)
  3. She was sitting____________ in the armchair watching her favourite TV programme. (COMFORTABLE)
  1. George was playing _____________in the garden. (HAPPY)
  2. She dances very______________ for her age. (GOOD)

The Gerund

The gerund always ends in -ing and is a noun formed from a verb which expresses an action or state. It can be used in the same way as any other noun.

Subject Smoking is bad for your health.
Object I hope you don’t mind my smoking.
Complement The worst thing for your stomach is eating before you go to bed.
Adjective An eating apple is far sweeter than a cooking apple.
After a preposition Why don’t you have a rest after exercising?

Certain verbs and expressions are followed by the gerund.

Put the words in the right order to make sentences.

  1. Jane / stick / to / walking / a / use / has.
  2. a / potatoes / gadget / bought /1 / special / peeling / for / have.
  3. the / many / in / eyes / for / front / of / so / spending / TV/your/is/hours/bad.
  4. most / washing up / is / hate / what /I.

Like, love, hate, prefer

The verbs like, love, hate, prefer are followed by:

a. the gerund when they express general likes, dislikes or preferences,

■ I hate working on my own.
■ She has never liked exercising.

b. the to-infinitive when they are used after would or when they refer to a particular case.

■ I would prefer to go in my own car.
■ We would love to help you out.

Match 1-5 with A-E to complete the sentences.

1. I’d really love
2. Would you like
3. John hates
4. I prefer
5. I hate

A. to think that my holidays are over.
B. visiting friends to staying at home.
C. going to parties. He finds them boring.
D. to go for a walk.
E. me to repeat the question?

Exercise 1

For numbers 1-14, read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (P) by the number. If a line has a word that should not be there, write the word in the box.


1____________ Travel is a remarkable thing. Put down two perfect strangers side by side in

2____________ an unfamiliar environment and what happens? More often than not they

3____________ start to chatting, exchanging confidences, sharing experiences and before

4____________ you can know it they’re instant best friends. It could happen anywhere, on a

5____________ boat, in a train or at a corner cafe in some foreign city; when the common

6____________ factor is travel with all its accompanying excitements of new places, new

7____________ experiences, new people. It’s only for much later, after cards have been

8____________ exchanged, addresses have been carefully written in filofaxes when they’re

9____________ nearly home and how their real best friends are there to meet them that reality

10___________ bites. All the things those two strangers had better in common, such as both

11___________ being human beings, maybe from the same country, even the same city

12___________ don’t seem to be very important enough to turn acquaintances into soul

13___________ mates. If a holiday friend actually took up a careless invitation to pay visit

14___________ whenever they were in the near neighbourhood, the other holiday friend would most probably run as fast as he could.

Exercise 2

For numbers 15 - 21, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.



Tradition is more than (15)………………when you look in the shop windows of Ireland. The chance to buy high-quality handcrafts made with the finest Irish materials should (16)……… not be missed. Prices are (17)……………. modest. Tweed from Donegal is among the best (18)……………… cloth in the world. From the other end of the country comes the unequalled quality glassware and crystal of Waterford. Limerick craftswomen still make  some of the world’s (19)…………………. lace. Gold and silversmiths following age-old customs of Celtic design and workmanship produce superb and unusual (20)……………….  All are very Irish and bear the (21)………………… stamp of style, excellence and expertise

Exercise 3

For numbers 22 - 31, read the text below and think of the word which fits each space. Use only one word in each space.


Initially, mobile phones were used almost exclusively by business executives who needed to be contacted for important messages or critical business meetings. Today, with lower subscription costs, cellular communication has turned (22)……………. a mobile mania. You’ll see teenagers chatting happily with their friends (23)…………….. school, in clubs or (24)……………. buses. Parents and their children (25)…………. ….them so that the former can keep track of the latter and the elderly use them because it gives them a (26)……………          of security. Cellular phones have become (27)……………. popular that a German magazine has actually written an entire article on the proper way to use a mobile phone. Some of these rules include: (28)……………. your mobile off at the opera because the people who are there have spent money to listen to voices other (29)…………..yours, not using it on the bus because people are sure to think that you’re trying to impress them, and most importantly, not lending your mobile to the wrong person. For instance, a problem (30)………………. arise if a husband lends his phone to his wife and then his boss tries to reach him. (31)………………. general, try not to be showy about it, because after all, everyone else has probably got one too.

Exercise 4

For numbers 32 - 36, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given.

32.  His English is very good. (well)

He speaks …………………………………….

33.  An exciting way to see the world is to travel by boat. (travelling)

       ………………………………………………is an exciting way to see the world.

34.  The museum would rather spend its money on works of art that may become priceless in the future.(prefer)

The museum……………….....its money on works of art that may become priceless in the future.

35.  There’s nothing she hates more than calculating the expense of each project. (anything)

She hates calculating the expense of each project…………………………………

36.  I hope you don’t mind if I smoke. (my)

I hope you don’t …………………………………..