Unit 5 | Grammar | B2
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Unit 5 | Grammar | B2

Personal Pronouns. Possessive Adjectives / Pronouns

Subject Pronouns I you he she it we they
Object Pronouns me you him her it us Them
Possessive Adjectives my your his her its our their
Possessive Pronouns mine yours his hers - ours theirs

Personal Pronouns are used instead of nouns, proper nouns or noun phrases.

Subject Pronouns come before the verb.

■ He passed the exam with a high mark.

Object Pronouns come after the verb or after a preposition.

■ Have you heard from him lately?
■ I told him the truth.

Both Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives show that something belongs to someone.

Possessive Adjectives are followed by a noun.

■ Where’s my book?

Possessive Pronouns are never followed by a noun.

■ That sweater can’t be yours.

Replace the underlined nouns with the appropriate pronoun.

  1. ‘What’s in that bag?’ ‘It’s Catherine’s new skirt.’


  1. A friend of my father's came to visit us yesterday.


  1. John has lied to Mary.


  1. I want Helen to give the books to John.


  1. Why are you laughing at Peter?


  1. Could you please put that down? It’s Mary’s and Thomas’.


  1. What time are your parents arriving from Leeds?


Some, any, no, every

Some and any mean a certain amount of or a certain number of. Both are used with either countable or uncountable nouns.

Some is mainly used in affirmative sentences.

I can lend you some money.

It may be used in questions that are offers or requests when you expect an affirmative answer.

Will you have some tea?
■ Can you lend me some money?

Any is particularly used in negative and interrogative sentences.

Are there any questions?
■ We didn’t ask any questions.

It may be used in affirmative sentences meaning that it doesn’t matter which person or thing is involved.

You can find it in any supermarket.

No means not any. It takes an affirmative verb to express a negative idea and vice versa.

There were no problems with the new machine.
■ She was no help at all!

Every means all persons or things involved. It is followed by a singular noun and therefore takes a singular verb.

■ Every student in the classroom was pleased with the new teacher.

Fill in the gaps with some, any, no or every.

  1. Is there_______________ bread left or should I go out and buy some
  2. There was_______________ right answer to the question.
  3. _____________ bedroom in his mansion has its own bathroom.
  4. There weren’t__________ particularly difficult words in the passage.
  5. Would you like____________ help with the washing up?
  6. I’m free next week so we can meet _____________day you like
  7. Why didn't you ask me for______________ extra sheets of paper?
  8. _____________ student in the school has his own locker.

Be going to vs. will

Use the form be going + to - infinitive:

a. to express sb’s intention to do something,

I’m going to discuss it with him soon.

b. to make a prediction which is based on evidence.

I think it’s going to rain. Look at all those black clouds!

Use will + infinitive without ‘to’:

a. to express an intention or decision made at the moment of speaking,

■ I forgot all about fixing your bike but I'll do it right now.

b. to make predictions, threats, promises, offers, and requests.

If anybody moves, I’ll shoot.

Decide whether the underlined verbs are right or wrong. Correct the mistakes.

  1. It’s definite. We will have a baby!
  2. ‘I’m hungry.’ ‘I’m going to make you a sandwich.’
  3. One day you were going to be rich; the fortune-teller told him.
  4. I will buy bread, cheese, and fruit. Do you need anything else?
  5. ‘Oh dear! We haven’t got any eggs left.’
    ‘Don’t worry. I’m going to go to the supermarket for you.

So, too, neither/ nor, either

To avoid repeating an affirmative statement with a different subject, we can use: so + auxiliary verb + subject:

‘John has gone away for the weekend. ’
   ‘So has Mary. ’

or subject + auxiliary verb + too:

■ My brother will help you if you like and I will too.

To avoid repeating a negative statement with a different subject, we can use neither/nor + auxiliary verb in the affirmative + subject:

I can’t swim and neither/nor can Mary.

or subject + auxiliary verb in the negative + either:

■ He doesn’t work very hard and his sister doesn’t either.

Respond to the statements by using so, too, neither, nor, either. Try to vary your responses.

  1. George can’t speak Chinese.


  1. They love classical music.


  1. We don’t have to wear a uniform.


  1. I started school when I was six.


  1. Mary hasn’t been to Japan.


  1. I’ll help John if he wants me to.


  1. I have never eaten bird’s nest soup.


Exercise 1

For numbers 1 -12, read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick () by the number. If a line has a word that should not be there, write the word in the box.


For us our boys, a perfect Saturday night out isn’t hanging out with our
mates but been having a date lined up with a girl who has submitted to our
charms. However, there is one thing that is sure to destroy all that lovely
anticipation – when you will arrive to see that your date has brought
company, in the shape of her best friend. You hope that your date’s friend is
on her way somewhere else but goes deep down, you know exactly what
your date is going to say the next. ‘1 hope you don’t mind,’ she’ll cheerily
explain. ‘Susan was at a loose end!’ Your romantic evening will be soon
turn into a night of polite chit-chat. What girls don’t understand is that why it’s
frightening enough entertaining one girl but when she brings her best friend
along, suddenly the whole evening it becomes a nightmare! What girls
should know is that three some is definitely a crowd.

Exercise 2

For numbers 13 – 20, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.


At a time when digital instruments (13)_______________monitor flight data at

(14)_________________  speeds far above the earth, why continue improving         

(15)_______________ chronographs?

(16)_______________ because there's more to time than technology.

Just ask Swiss Time, the world’s (17)___________________ maker of time

instruments for aviation (18)__________________.

Its (19) _________________  designed and lovingly hand-polished watchcases put

(20)_________________ progress in a broader, more rewarding perspective.           









Exercise 3

For numbers 21 - 29, read the text below and think of the word which fits each space. Use only one word in each space.


The proposal (21)……………… include environment-awareness lessons (22)……………….. the school curriculum was a hot topic in Prime Minister’s Question Time last week. Greenpeace representatives emphasized the need for lessons based (23)………………….  topics    (24)……………….. as alternative energy, pollution control, and environmental protection to (25)……………….. taught in primary schools as a separate school subject. (26)……………. to Colin Hull, Greenpeace Director of Educational Matters, ‘Children are our future and it is (27)………………… who are going to have to deal (28)………………… the damage their parents and ancestors did to the planet so we have to teach them (29)……………....   to prevent further destruction of the earth and its natural resources.’ The Minister of Education said that this would be an issue for further discussion.

Exercise 4

For numbers 30 - 34, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given Do not change the word given.

30.  ‘I haven’t studied for the Maths test today.’ ‘Neither have I.’         (either)

‘I haven’t studied for the Maths test today.’ ‘………………………………….’

31.  He claims that no detail has been left out.         (every)

He claims that………………………….. included.

32.  These lecture notes are mine, not his.         (belong)

These lecture notes…………………………………….. him.

33. ‘I won’t be in the office tomorrow. I’m going to see my mother in Bristol,’ Marion said.    (because)

Marion said she wouldn’t be in the office…………………….. going to see her mother in Bristol.

34.  ‘You can’t find a copy of the speech at just any library,’ she said.          (some)

‘You can only find a copy of the speech………………………………. ’ she said.