Unit 17: Modals | Grammar | B1
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Unit 17: Modals | Grammar | B1

The ten modal verbs are:
Present form: can, may, will, shall, must, ought to
Past form: could, might, would, should


Choose the appropriate modal verbs to fill the gaps in the sentences below:

1. I ___________ n't like to be in your situation.

2. She's a professional sprinter. She ___________ run faster than anyone else in Britain.

3. The law states that drivers ___________ wear their seatbelts at all times.

4. "___________ I leave the room, please?" "No, you ___________

5. "What ___________ we do tonight? Do you fancy going to the cinema?"

6. I can speak French now but before I went to live in France, I ___________ n't speak the language at all.

7. If you hurry, you ___________ just catch him on his way out.

8. You ___________ show more respect for your teachers.

9. ___________ you be staying at the hotel long, sir?

10. My advice is that you ___________ go to a psychiatrist.

Must, have to and have (got) to generally have the same meaning in affirmative statements.
E.G. You must tell the truth. You have (got) to tell the truth.

However, must is preferred in some situations,
E.G. in public signs: Visitors must use the front entrance.
when we refer to ourselves: I must write to my grandmother.
with invitations or advice: You must read that book. It’s very interesting.


Read the following and write suitable sentences using must or have to:

1. In a museum, you see a sign which tells visitors to leave their bags at the reception desk. What does the sign say?


2. It’s half past five and you haven’t started cooking yet. You are expecting a group of guests to arrive for dinner at 7:00. What might you say to yourself?


3. Your teacher advises you to study harder fa the next test. What does she say to you?


4. To catch the plane, it is necessary for you and your family to be at the airport by 2:00 p.m. Your father reminds you of this. What does he say?


Must can refer to the present or the future:
E.G. I must phone him today/tomorrow.

For other tenses, have to is used:
E.G. We couldn’t stay. We had to be home by 10:00 p.m.
The doctor has had to cancel this morning’s appointments.
If we wanted to get there on time, we would have to leave at 5:00 a.m.

Moreover, have to is used in preference to must when something beyond our control (e.g. a timetable, regulations) forces us to take a particular course of action.
E.G. We have to get to the station in time for the 2:30 train.
You’ll have to be out of the building before the security guard comes to lock up.


Match the two halves of the broken sentences below:

1. Pupils must not A. check in two hours before the flight departure time.
2. I will be really busy this afternoon. I must B. write in pen on the examination papers.
3. The bride's father has to C. wait in the queue.
4. The ticket says we have to D. take my son to the doctor's.
5. Sorry I'm late. I had to E. clean the house before Aunt Molly arrives.
6. If you buy your tickets in advance, you won't have to F. wait six months for the water company to connect their houses to the main water supply.
7. Some residents complained they'd had to G. pay for the wedding reception.