Unit 10 | Grammar | B2
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Unit 10 | Grammar | B2

Phrasal verbs

pull...down demolish
pull in / up stop a vehicle
pull... off succeed in doing
pull out discontinue an activity or agreement
drive out of a place and into the road
pull up slow down and stop a vehicle

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate phrasal verb.

1. Check for any oncoming vehicles and_____________________________ carefully.

2. A decision was taken to_______________________ the old factory.

3. _______________________ at the next corner, please.

4. He_____________________ at the rest spot to have a look at the wonderful view.

5. We’ve invested too much money and time to_______________________ of this deal now.

6. He was the only one capable of________________________ that kind of stunt.

By, on, in

By + noun (without a/the/my) is used to refer to:

a. the type of transport we use, ■ by bus, by car, by train

b. how we travel. ■ by sea, by air, by land

On + a/the/my + noun is used to refer to:

a. forms of travel such as trains, buses, coaches, boats, aeroplanes,

■ on a plane, on the bus, on my boat

b. forms of transport that people ride.

■ on a motorbike, on a camel

Note: On foot means walking.

In + a/the/my + noun is used to talk about vehicles used to travel (except: buses, coaches, bikes).

■ in a taxi, in the aeroplane

Some of the sentences below are incorrect. Correct the mistakes.

1. They all left in Tom’s car.


2. Last summer, he went to Germany on rail.


3. In the past, people travelled In horseback.


4. The Prime Minister has never travelled in a bus.


5. Why don’t you go by ferry?


6. He arrived at the office by his motorbike


7. The school is so near we can go by foot.


adjective or adverb?

Note that the following words can be used both as adjectives and adverbs with no change in their form.

fast      hard     late     early    right

straight           well (= healthy)          wrong

■ He drives fast.         ■ He’s a fast driver

Fill in each gap with one of the adjectives or adverbs on the left. Say if it’s an adjective or an adverb.

  1. He was______________________ for the interview and as a result didn’t get the job.
  2. It isn’t_____________________ to tell lies,’ my mother always used to say.
  3. I don’t feel__________________ . I’d better see a doctor.
  4. ‘Have I written it______________ ?’ the little boy asked his teacher.

The Infinitive

I. The to-infinitive can be used:

a. after certain verbs such as want, wish, like,

■ She wants to go to a party.

b. after certain adjectives such as happy, pleased, disappointed,

■ I’m sorry to tell you that you have failed the exam.

c. after impersonal expressions such as It’s necessary/important/easy,

■ It’s difficult to go there at night.
■ It’s important for him to know the truth.

d. to express purpose,

■ I went to the bank manager to ask for a loan.

e. after too + adjective/adverb or adjective/adverb + enough,

He thought he was too clever to deal with such minor issues.
■ He felt he was not experienced enough to handle it.
■ He arrived at the station too late to catch the train.
■ Mary studied hard enough to pass the exam.

f. as the subject of a sentence,

■ To err is human, to forgive divine.

g. after something/anybody/nowhere, etc. and after question words such as how, where.

■ I can’t think of anything to say to him.
■ We had no idea where to look for him.

II. Use the infinitive without ‘to’:

a. after modal verbs,

We can/may/might/could meet in the afternoon.

b. after certain verbs,

■ The kidnappers let him go free when they got the money.

c. after would rather..., had better..., Why?, and Why not...?.

■ I’d rather see a play than watch TV.
■ You’d better call back later.
■ Why stay indoors on a sunny day like today?
■ Why not spend the evening with friends? 

Use the to-infinitive or infinitive without ‘to’ to fill in the gaps.

  1. Could you possibly__________________ (type) these letters for me?
  2. I’d rather_______________ (stay) at home than_______________(go) out with you.
  3. It’s really good________________ (see) you again.
  4. We had no idea where________________ (look) for him.
  5. That dress is too formal_______________ (wear) during the daytime.
  6. I’ve decided _________________(tell) him the truth.
  7. There’s a basket_______________ (put) your dirty laundry in.
  8. _________________ (admit) you’ve done something wrong takes a lot of courage.
  9. ‘I want you_______________ (do) it now,’ he said.
  10. Our parents rarely let us___________________ (watch) television on a school night.
  11. You are going to have______________ (face) him sooner or later.
  12. We’d better_______________ (leave) before it gets dark.
  13. Don’t tell me you’ve nowhere ____________(go) on a Saturday night.
  14. Why not ______________ (go) to Austria for Christmas?
  15. Is it necessary for both of you _____________________ (go)?

Exercise 1

For numbers 1-12, read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (P) by the number. If a line has a word that should not be there, write the word in the box.

1 ___________ ‘Did you remember to feed the goldfish?’ ‘Erm, sorry I forgot so. I’ve got a

2 ___________ lot on my mind, you know.’ Nearly everyone has found by themselves in a

3 ___________ similar situation, giving off a similar excuse. But have you ever asked yourself

4 ___________ why we forget things when we have a lot on our minds? If we could to

5 ___________ remember our whole lives in as much detail as the last hour, how we would

6 ___________ become very confused. It is the process of ‘fading’ the immediate past

7 ___________ which it helps us to remember the sequence of events in our lives. Our

8 ___________ brains have a limited total capacity, so that the forgetting allows us to adapt

9 ___________ in any order to make room for new memories. The time of day also has a strong

10 __________ influence on memory. Experiments testing people on things that they have

11 __________ just been learnt show that short-term memory gets worse as the day progresses

12 __________ on (probably due to increased tiredness). So the next time you forget to do

something, or forget doing something it’s because your memory just ran out of space.

Exercise 2

For numbers 13-18, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.


Some years ago I (13 REGULAR) ……………….. had to travel from London to Paris by plane. Of course, planes were often late and there were frequent delays. One day while we were waiting to take off, an (14 ANNOUNCE)………………told us to expect another lengthy wait. I noticed a member of the crew at the front of the cabin, and because I wanted to pass the time, I decided to go up to her and tell her about other problems I had had on this airline. She listened to me (15 CARE)………………….. ‘Sir,’ she finally asked, ‘what’s your name?’ With images of free (16 FLY)……………….. and better (17 SERVE)………………. dancing in my head, I pronounced my name clearly and spelled it for her. She nodded and repeated my name to check if it was right. I couldn’t help feeling (18 PATIENCE)……………………while waiting for her reply. ‘Well, Mr Reiman,’ she said, ‘I must remember to avoid any flights listing you as a passenger.’

Exercise 3

For numbers 19 - 25, read the text below and think of the word which fits each space. Use only one word in each space.


Why are most big cities dirty, smelly places? Mainly because of cars. Every time you take a ride (19)……………….. a car, petrol is converted into a number of pollutants which are then pumped out of the exhaust pipe into the air. Of course, there is an alternative: using catalytic converters or other kinds of fuel. Even chicken manure will do the trick if the engine is adapted to take it! But that’s still a long way off. Right now we should concentrate on what we already have. Public transport, for example. When travelling (20)……………….. bus, the same number of people can get (21)…………………………  their destinations with fewer traffic jams, less pollution, and fewer accidents. What more could (22)…………………. ask for? For a start, a more efficient transport service.

Unfortunately, it will take about 20 years for that to happen. Till then the only real ‘green’ alternatives are travelling (23)………………….. bike or (24)…………………….  foot. Bicycles are clean, cheap, healthy and fun. But it is often too dangerous to ride a bike in the city and most people have forgotten how to use their legs. So, we (25)         ……………….… to get our city councils to create bicycle lanes and more areas for pedestrians.

Exercise 4

For numbers 26 - 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given.

26.  I’d prefer to go to Cuba by air than by sea.  (rather)

I……………………………………………. to Cuba by air than by sea.

27.  We’ll be entering Henry in the race. He’s the fastest runner we’ve got. (runs)

We’ll be entering Henry in the race. He…………………………… anyone else we’ve got.

28.  The baker’s is only two stops away. Why don’t you try walking there for a change? (foot)

The baker’s is only two stops away. Why don’t you try…………………… for a change?

29.  I’m sure I wrote the message down somewhere.  (remember)

I…………………………………….  the message down somewhere.

30.  I’m always late for work no matter what time I leave home.(turn)

I…………………………………….  for work no matter what time I leave home.