Unit 1 | Grammar | B2
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Unit 1 | Grammar | B2

Who? / What? / Which?

Ask questions with:

Who                about a person

Which (+of)    about a person or thing

What               about things, actions, ideas, opinions, jobs, etc.

Use who and what when there is a limitless number of people or things to choose from.
Who’s your sister?
What’s your favourite radio station?

Use which when there is a limited choice.
Which (of the girls in the picture) is your sister?

Note: Which and what, but NOT who, may be used before nouns.
Which car is yours?
What colour is it?
Who came? but not Who girl came?

Fill in the gaps with who, which, what.

  1. __________________ would you like to speak to?
  2. __________________ department do you want, sir?
  3. __________________ do you mean?
  4. __________________ student answered the question?
  5. __________________ DVD did you buy?
  6. __________________ has been invited to the party?
  7. __________________ does he do?
  8. ‘I got a letter from Brian today.’
    ‘Brian ___________ ?’

Uncountable nouns

1.   a. They may refer to liquids (oil), things we eat (sugar), abstract ideas (news, information), natural materials (gold, cotton).

b. Some common uncountable nouns do not come under the categories above: furniture, money, hair, luggage.

2. They have only one form and cannot normally be used with the indefinite article a/an or with numbers.

3. They may come after words like the, some, any, no, much, this/that, little, my/your.
There’s not much bread left.
I have little information to give to you, I ’m afraid.

4. When they become the subject of the verb, the verb is in the singular.
The furniture we bought was rather expensive.

5. Some nouns may be either countable or uncountable depending on the meaning:
I’ve bought a paper (=newspaper). But
 There is some paper on my desk(=to write on).

6.. Another way to show quantity with uncountable nouns is to use words that describe them as units such as piece, bit, bar, glass, tin, packet, loaf, sheet together with of.
Ten sheets of paper
A useful piece of advice

Use the prompts to make sentences, changing the verb form where necessary.

  1. he / give / me / very / useful / advice.


  1. news/be/really/worrying.


  1. you / have / luggage?


  1. there / be / fruit / but / there / be / no / vegetables.


  1. money / be / in / the / drawer.


  1. not / forget / to buy / two / soap.


  1. there / be / egg / on / my dress.


Present Continuous vs. Present Simple

Use the Present Continuous (I am doing) for:

1. an activity that is in progress now, the moment.
You can’t speak to John. He’s having a hath.

2. temporary states,
I’m living with my brother until I find a place of my own.

3. habits which are considered annoying, together with always, forever, constantly.
You ’re always coming home late.

Use the Present Simple (I do) for:

1. a habitual or repeated action,
She goes to school every day.

2. facts or permanent states.
Water boils at 100°C.
She lives in Pans.

Decide whether the underlined verbs are right or wrong. Correct the mistakes.

  1. Although he is a chemist, he works as a waiter at the moment.


  1. I’m afraid the hotels are costing too much and we can’t afford it.


  1. ‘Where is John?' ‘I think he is talking to Susan on the phone.’


  1. Are you ever visiting your brother in Australia?


  1. Do you often have coffee in the morning?


Do, does and did

Do, does and did are used:

to form questions and negative statements in the Simple Present and Simple Past,

Doesn’t/Does she like ice cream?
■ Her parents didn’t allow her to go to the dance.

b. to form the negative imperative,
■ Don’t switch the TV off yet.

c. to add emphasis,
He does know her quite well.

d. to avoid repeating the main verb.
I thought they would come, but they didn’t.


a. to carry out an action which is not specified or not yet known,

What shall I do?
They aren’t doing anything at the moment.

b. to perform a task or activity (in this case do is followed by the + noun / the + ing),
You do the windows. I’ll do the washing up.

c. to work at,
He has done all kinds of jobs in his life.

d. to study for.
He did his MA at London University.

Rearrange the words to make full sentences. Indicate whether do is used as an auxiliary (Aux) or main verb (MV).

  1. why / your / exam results / do / about / lie / to / always / me / you?


  1. don’t / dusting / mind /1 / doing / you / if / do / the / hoovering / the.


  1. tell / you / you / but / did / do /1 / not / remember.


  1. school / at / did / history / he.


  1. panic/not / do.



  1. afternoon / what / this / doing / you / are?


  1. do / boyfriend /1 / not / my / enjoys / but / abroad / travelling.


Exercise 1

For numbers 1-9, read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (S) by the number. If a line has a word that should not be there, write the word in the box.

Film Review - JUNIOR

Arnold Schwarzenegger makes fun of his tough-guy image by is playing
the world’s first  pregnant man. Yes, folks - Arnold pregnant. Arnold wear in
a pink dress. Arnold with women’s problems. Oh boy! Now what, depending
on your point of view, this is either very    upsetting or really much funny.
Devoted fans of Arnold’s action days they are likely to be disappointed with
‘Junior’. But if you enjoyed his first two comedies, this one shouldn’t will
come as too much of a surprise. Directed by Ivan Reitman, this is a light,
silly comedy, though  be worth watching and reasonably entertaining. Maybe
even funny, if after ‘Mrs Doubtfire’ you can to still laugh at a man in
women’s clothing.


Exercise 2

For numbers 10-17, use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.


Collecting gadgets doesn’t seem to be a(n) (10)_____________thing. There
probably isn’t a (11)____________ in the land that hasn’t got from a drawer filled
with an (12)_____________ of small devices ranging from egg separators to new and (13)__________ mousetraps. Gadgets promise short cuts, ease, efficiency and
(14) __________. Although they are probably the inevitable by-products of the             (15)___________ revolution, they also represent little in terms of
(16) ___________ progress. When people stop using old-fashioned utensils,
gadget (17)___________ begins.

Exercise 3

For numbers 18-27, read the text below and think of the word which fits each space. Use only one word in each space.


The ozone layer (18)_________________ becoming thinner all over the world. 70% of Antarctica’s ozone blanket has already disappeared. (19)_____________ means that people, plants and animals are in more danger of suffering (20)_____________ skin cancers and diseases. Who is (21)___________       blame? Who is slowly destroying our only protection against the sun’s dangerous ultraviolet rays? We are.

The destruction of the ozone layer is mostly caused (22)___________ man-made chemicals like CFCs, which are used as coolants in refrigerators and air-conditioning systems or in sprays. Every time you (23)____________ on an air-conditioning system manufactured with CFCs, you are (24)____________ something to destroy the ozone layer. Every time you spray styling foam on your hair, you are making the ozone layer a (25)_________________ bit thinner.

But there is a bright side to this. Many chemical companies are producing less CFCs. (26)__________a few years’ time, the amount of CFCs in the atmosphere will have started to drop, and if countries cooperate fully by not manufacturing more CFCs, the ozone layer will have fully recovered by the year 2050.

In some European countries, ‘green’ refrigerators are (27)______________manufactured without CFCs, which have already replaced 50% of the market.

Exercise 4

For numbers 28 - 32, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given.

28. Mr Smith is free at the moment. Would you like to speak to him? (doing)
Mr Smith………………………Would you like to speak to him?

29. Just add a pinch of salt to the soup.  (little)
Just……………………………………… to the soup.

30. My father cooks dinner every Friday evening. (does)
My father………………………. every Friday evening.

31. I’m having difficulty choosing between the red dress and the black dress. (which)
I don’t know……………………. : the red one or the black one.

32. After having her hair dyed a few times, she noticed that she had less hair than before.  (much)
After having her hair dyed a few times, she noticed that she didn’t ……………… before.